Monday, January 3, 2011

Cloning in Focus

What is Cloning?

1. Who is Dolly? Dolly is a genetically cloned sheep, experimented on in 1997.

2. When a zygote divides into to separate cells, it is called embryo twinning.

3. Somatic cells are also called diploids, owing to the fact that these particular cells refer to all those opposing the germ cells.

4. In order to clone a gene, a gene is inserted into a plasmid.

5. In order to create an embryo from a somatic cell, the donor egg cell must have its nucleus removed.

Click and Clone

6. List all the materials needed to clone a mouse.
Mimi-the brown mouse used for cloning
Megdo-egg cell donor
Momi-surrogate mother (white mouse) to grow Mimi clone
Petri dishes
Blunt pipette
Chemical to stimulate cell division

7. Place the following steps in the correct order.

___4____Stimulate cell division
___6____Deliver baby
___2____ Remove and discard the nucleus from the egg cell
___1____ Isolate donor cells from egg donor and germ cell donor
___3____ Transfer the somatic cell nucleus into the egg cell
___5____ Implant embryo into a surrogate mother

8. There are two time gaps in the process of cloning. What are they? (ie. what do you have to wait for?)
a) The substituted egg cell's nucleus and egg cell need some time to settle with one another in order for the DNA to 'restart' per say, to behave as a 'natural' egg cell's nucleus. This process takes several hours.
b) The second gap in the cloning process involves waiting for the cell to create a ball (morula, or 16 cells) in the petri dish. This process also takes several hours.

9. What color with the cloned mouse be?
The newborn mouse is brown, because its genetic substance derived from Mimi, the mouse used for cloning. What is the name of this mouse? The name of the new brown pup is Mini-Mimi.

Why Clone?

10. Why is cloning extinct animals problematic?
Cloning extinct animals is a problematic scientific agenda due to a little reasoning logic. To illustrate this point, take dinosaurs, for example. These dinosaurs, if reproduced in the current era, would have a terrible time adapting to the current atmosphere, environment, and the capacity that the animals utilize would behoove a major issue in the near future. Of course, this possibility is theoretically feasible, due to the fact that scientists could produce a well-preserved source of DNA from the extinct dinosaur, and a closely related species, currently living, that could serve as a surrogate mother.

11. What are some reasons a person might want to clone a human?
There are infinite reasons why one may want, or even need, to clone a human. However, the chief rationales include:
providing infertile couples with a child.
to replace a deceased child.
to help gay partners have children.
In theory, cloning humans are just as, if not more, viable when it comes to statistics and thesis. Unfortunately, not all consider the legal and ethical perspective of the issue, resulting in a global controversy on the main topic.

The Clone Zone

12. What animal was cloned in 1885?
The sea urchin was cloned in 1885 by a scientist by the name of Hans Adolf Edward Dreisch. In this experiment, Hans discovered that the action of shaking two-celled sea urchin embryos, the cells could then be divided. The consequences of these actions resulted in two, complete sea-urchin organisms.

13. How did Spemann separate the two cells of the embryo of a salamander in 1902?
Spemann separated the two cell of the embryo of a salamander in 1902 by sculpting a noose (fabricated from baby hair), and constricted the bond, thus dividing the unit into two cells. They developed into normal adult salamanders, opposed to those with advanced embryos.

14. The process of removing a nucleus is called enucleating.

15. In 1952, the nucleus of a frog embryo cell was placed into a donor cell. Did it work to clone the animal?
The cloning did, in fact, prove successful in correlation with the standard embryo. The scientists Robert Briggs and Thomas King devised a process, which involved: isolating the nucleus from a donor cell (early tadpole embryo), remove the recipient's from egg cell through enucleation, and ultimately reuniting the donor nucleus and the recipient egg. Although their earlier results were triumphant, their outcomes with the advanced nucleus were very similar to Hans Spemann's with his salamander lab. These particular frogs either died off or developed an abnormality in later life.

16. Can the nucleus of an adult cell be injected into an egg cell and produce a clone?
Yes it can. When using Briggs and King's operation, the nucleus of an adult cell can be injected into an egg cell and produce a clone. In fact, cloning doesn't necessarily mean to develop a fully complete, adult organism. Scientists from the Advanced Cell Technology company have discovered a therapeutical advantage when it comes to cloning. This works when the patient is cloned, individual stem cells are created by an embryo in its early stages, which are then grown in a laboratory, and utilized to repair damaged regions with tissue that is identical to those that were impaired.

17. Why are mammals hard to clone?
Transgenic technology has developed and become more probable every year. This particular technology is successful in cloning animals such as sheep due to easy access to milk. The milk provides facile means of retrieval for protein in large quantities, which is then purified and used in the medical fields. Besides from that from a scientific's exact eye, the DNA of mammals are complex, and it is difficult to determine how each individual with react and adapt to the environment.

18. What were the names of the first two cloned cows?
Fusion and Copy were the names of the first two cloned cows, twinned by scientists Neal First, Randal Prather, and Willard Eyestone.

19. In what year was the National Bioethics Advisory Council formed?
1995 saw the formation of the National Bioethics Advisory Council, organized by president Bill Clinton, who just so happened to demean cloning, yet still provide experts with the materials to investigate the therapeutical standpoint on the matter. The council consisted of both scientific and non-scientific experts focusing on the legal, ethical, and religious aspects of cloning. cl

20. The first mammal clone to be produced from an adult (somatic) cell?
Dolly the sheep was the first mammal clone to be produced from an adult somatic cell.

21. What do scientists do to adult cells to make them "behave" like embryos?
Scientists remove the nucleus of somatic cell, and transfer it into the enucleated egg cell, reprogramming it to behave like embryos.

22. Transgenic, cloned sheep were used to produce what medical protein?
The donor somatic cells (which were injected with the transgene) was devised to demonstrate human clotting factor IX protein in the milk of sheep; the protein plays an essential role in blood coagulation and inadequate quantities of it may lead to the disease Haemophilia B. All known, effective treatments encompass the objective of utilizing the intravenous infusion of factor IX. The production of this protein in pharming would distribute a source of this therapeutic protein that would reduce the cost in addition to the advantage of potentially infectious-free risk in relation to the current source of this protein, which in this case, would be human blood.

23. What is a stem cell?
A stem cell is an undifferentiated cell whose daughter cells may distinguish itself into other cell types, thus maintaining a sustainable population. Blood cells are typical exemplars of stem cells.

Cloning Myths

24. Briefly describe in your own words, why CC the cat was not identical in color to Rainbow, even though she was a clone.
in the early stages of Rainbow's development , Rainbow turned off an entire X chromosome. Thereby, the possibility of the black fur coat color gene switching, or the orange fur coat color gene switching both have a 50% chance. This process most often happens in females and this process is called X-inactivication; the process preserves the balance in genders.

25. What is "nature vs nurture"?
There is no doubt that the genome changes slower than a glacier. It is shaped by the environment and, fundamentally, nature in general. It has somewhat of a firm grip on the steering wheel on one's personality, appearance, memory, etc. There is nothing like it. However, the behavior one is exposed to influences their, and many successors likewise, disposition. Dietary factors also impact lives. If bad eating habits are not discouraged, one could eventually end up abating the family tree with an upshot of death by clogged arteries, in the worst case scenario. As you can interpret, there are many controversies over which is more dominant, recessive, or co-dominant. Which argument will preside?

Is it Cloning or Not?

26. For each of the following scenarios, indicate YES (it is cloning) or NO (it is not cloning)

__NO__ Sperm taken from a mole goat is combined with a female's egg in a petri dish. The resulting embryo is implanted into the female's uterus to develop
__YES__ A sheep embryo, composed of 16 cells, is removed from the mother's uterus and separated into indivudal cells. Each cell is allowed to multiply, creating 16 separate embryos, which are then implanted in different female sheep to develop to maturity.
__NO__ A cow with many desirable traits is stimulated with hormones to produce a number of egg cells. Each of these eggs is fertilized and implanted into a surrogate mother.
__NO__ In vitro fertilization
__YES__ Cell nuclei from an extinct wolly mammoth are placed into enucleated cow cells.

27. Define or describe each of the following processes (you may need to reset the Cloning or Not Screen)

Invitro fertilization: Egg cells are fertilized by sperm outside the body, in vitro. (In vitro, deriving from latin descent, means 'within glass'.)

Embryo splitting: Disaffiliation of an early-stage embryo into two or more embryos with identical genetic makeup, inherently breeding identical twins or higher multiples.

Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer: The act of moving a cell nucleus and its genetic material from one cell to another.

Multiple Ovulation Embryo Transfer: A method of producing an animal of certain genetic qualities in a quicker manner.
The multiple ovulation part is where the female animal is manipulated hormonally to produce more than the usual number of eggs during ovulation. The chosen male's semen, containing the genes you are selecting are placed to fertilise the eggs in the female. the new embryos are then removed from the female before they are attached to the uterine wall. This is the embryo transfer part. Other female animals are used because their oestrous cycle is at the right point to recieve the embryo. Hormones can be used to manipulate the recieving animal's oestrous cycle aswell.

Artificial Insemination: Artificial insemination, or AI, is the process by which sperm is placed into the reproductive tract of a female for the purpose of impregnating the female by using means other than sexual intercourse.

What Are the Risks of Cloning?

28. What is one reason why cloning animals has such a high failure rate?
Cloning animals through somatic cell nuclear transfer is simply inefficient. The success rate ranges from 0.1 percent to 3 percent, which means that for every 1000 tries, only one to 30 clones are made. Or you can look at it as 970 to 999 failures in 1000 tries. Some of the hypothetical/verified reasons include:
The enucleated egg and the transferred nucleus may not be compatible.
An egg with a newly transferred nucleus may not begin to divide or develop properly.
Implantation of the embryo into the surrogate mother might fail.
The pregnancy itself might fail.

29. What is a telomere and how does it affect cloned animals?
A telomere is a region of repetitive DNA at the end of a chromosome, which protects the end of the chromosome from deterioration. In cloned animals the telomere length is shorter than naturally uncloned animals.

What Are Some Issues in Cloning?

30. Pick one of the questions to ponder and ....ponder it. Write a brief essay on your thoughts and opinions.
Whom will the technology help? Does it have the potential to hurt anyone?
Ultimately and without a doubt, the scientists will receive the largest benefits from the production of the technology. After all, they are the ones who extracted the idea, proposed a hypothesis, established a rational conclusion, and published it for the world to adjudicate and ponder. Patients who are treated for their so-called ‘incurable’ disease or handicap, along with their family and friends, will also obtain their fair share of profits in restored hope, security, ability, etc. However, there are a community of swindled invalids who had participated in experiments, only to be awarded with their own pristine afflictions, ranging from mild to severe. These, without hesitation, are only a subsection of those who the technology will hurt. Connoisseurs of politics, religion, and ethics will have their own perspective of the matter at hand. Luckily for the scientists, a margin of the populace fluctuates like the stock market, each one hanging on to the edge of their seat, hoping to invest in the jackpot. With every failure, the aura dips into a stupefied stupor. And with every triumph, society cheers in jubilation. That’s the glory of a discovery. Everyone can not be pleased, so it is up to the leaders to decide which contingent will be rejoicing, and hope it’s in your favor.